Friday, January 20, 2017

Independent Subjunctives

Independent Uses of the Subjunctive Mood

A. Jussive and Hortatory Subjunctive (use ne for the negative):
The Jussive (iubeo, -ere, iussi, iussus) and Hortatory (hortor, -ari, -atus sum) are
used to express a command or an exhortation:

Veniat! Let him come! (Jussive)
Veniamus! Let’s come! (Hortatory)

The Jussive occurs in the third person, the Hortatory in the first.
The negative is introduced by ne: Ne hoc faciat! Let him not do this!

B. Potential Subjunctive (use non for negative):
The subjunctive may be used to express an action which might possibly occur:

Haec credas. You might believe these things.
Dicas eum hominem bonum esse. You might say he is a good man.

Past potentiality is expressed by the imperfect subjunctive:

Crederes eum hominem bonum esse. You might have believed he was a good man.

C. Deliberative Subjunctive (use non for negative):
The present and imperfect subjunctives are used to deliberate about something, often in a rhetorical question:

Quid faciam? What am I to do?  What should I do?
Quid facerem? What was I to do? What should I have done?

The negative is introduced by non.

Tigrem non vexarem? Should I not have annoyed the tiger?

D. Optative Subjunctive
The Optative (opto -are) is used for:

-1. a future wish capable of fulfillment, often (but not always) introduced by utinam or ut (negative utinam
ne or ne) using the present subjunctive:

Utinam Caesar adveniat! Would that Caesar may arrive! (i.e., I wish Caesar would arrive)
Utinam Caesar ne adveniat! Would that Caesar may not arrive!

-2. Contrary to fact wishes use the imperfect subjunctive for present time and pluperfect subjunctive for past time:

Utinam Caesar adveniret! Would that Caesar were arriving (but he is not).

Utinam venisset! Would that Caesar had arrived (but he did not).




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