Independent Uses of the Subjunctive Mood
A. Jussive and Hortatory Subjunctive (use ne for the negative):
The Jussive (iubeo, -ere, iussi, iussus) and Hortatory (hortor, -ari, -atus sum) are
used to express a command or an exhortation:
Veniat! Let him come! (Jussive)
Veniamus! Let’s come! (Hortatory)
The Jussive occurs in the third person, the Hortatory in the first.
The negative is introduced by ne: Ne hoc faciat! Let him not do this!
B. Potential Subjunctive (use non for negative):
The subjunctive may be used to express an action which might possibly occur:
Haec credas. You might believe these things.
Dicas eum hominem bonum esse. You might say he is a good man.
Past potentiality is expressed by the imperfect subjunctive:
Crederes eum hominem bonum esse. You might have believed he was a good man.
C. Deliberative Subjunctive (use non for negative):
The present and imperfect subjunctives are used to deliberate about something, often in a rhetorical question:
Quid faciam? What am I to do? What should I do?
Quid facerem? What was I to do? What should I have done?
The negative is introduced by non.
Tigrem non vexarem? Should I not have annoyed the tiger?
D. Optative Subjunctive
The Optative (opto -are) is used for:
-1. a future wish capable of fulfillment, often (but not always) introduced by utinam or ut (negative utinam
ne or ne) using the present subjunctive:
Utinam Caesar adveniat! Would that Caesar may arrive! (i.e., I wish Caesar would arrive)
Utinam Caesar ne adveniat! Would that Caesar may not arrive!
-2. Contrary to fact wishes use the imperfect subjunctive for present time and pluperfect subjunctive for past time:
Utinam Caesar adveniret! Would that Caesar were arriving (but he is not).
Utinam venisset! Would that Caesar had arrived (but he did not).